E S P E R A N T O      A F F I X E S

affix   meaning                       examples of use

I a.  Official Prefixes:

bo-    relationship by marriage,      bopatrino = mother-in-law,
       -in-law                        bofrato = brother-in-law

dis-   dis-, dispersal, separation,   disĵeti = to scatter about,
       scattering, dismemberment      disdoni = to distribute,
                                      disaŭdigi = to broadcast,
                                      disigi = to separate, to take apart,
                                      disiĝi = to disintegrate, to fall apart

ek-    momentary, sudden,             ekiri = to start,
       commencement,                  ekbrili = to flash,
       beginning of action            ekvidi = to notice,
       or brief lasting action        ekkrii = to shout out,
                                      eki = to begin, to start,
                                      ni eku! = let's get started

eks-   ex-, former                    eksreĝo = ex-king,
                                      eksedzino = ex-wife,
                                      eksigi = to discharge (from office),
                                               to impeach,
                                      eksiĝi = to resign

fi-    shameful, nasty,               fiago = shameful act,
       morally bad,                   figazeto = "smutty" magazine,
       moral degradation,             fialudi = innuendo, evil insinuation,
       contempt                       fikomercisto = swindler,
                                      fia = nasty, horrid,
                                      fiaĉa = repulsing in any regard

ge-    of both sexes together         gepatroj = parents,
                                      gejunuloj = youth, young people,
                                      gesinjoroj = ladies and gentleman,
                                      gea = of both sexes, unisex

mal-   opposite                       malgranda = small,
                                      malami = to hate,
                                      malaperi = to vanish, to disappear,
                                      malriĉa = poor,
                                      malbona = bad,
                                      malbela = ugly,
                                      malforta = weak,
                                      malfacila = difficult,
                                      maldekstra = left,
                                      malfermi = to open,
                                      malkonsenti = to disagree,
                                      mala = opposite,
                                      male = on the contrary, contrary to

mis-   mis-, amiss, wrongly           miskompreni = to misunderstand,
                                      miskompreno = misunderstanding,
                                      misuzi = to misuze,
                                      misuzo = abuse

pra-   remote (time), primordiality,  prapatroj = ancestors,
       remoteness of relationship,    praavo = great-grandfather,
       of great antiquity, primeval,  pranepo = great-grandson,
       great (in family relationship),prahistorio = prehistory,
       ancient, fore-                 pratempo = the ancient past,
                                      pratempa, praa = ancient

re-    re-, return, repetition,       resendi = to send back,
       back, over again               reveni = to come back, to return (intr),
                                      redoni = to give back, to return (tr),
                                      rebrili = to reflect,
                                      reverki = to re-write (a book, etc.)

I b.  Unofficial Prefixes:

pseŭdo-   pseudo-                    pseŭdoscienco = pseudoscience,
                                      pseŭdonomo = pseudonym

retro- backward                       retroiri = to retire, withdraw, retreat,
                                      retrorigardi = to look back

II a. Official Suffixes:

-aĉ-  scorn, disparagement,          domaĉo = hovel, shack, shanty,
       contemptible, disgusting,      skribaĉi = to scrawl,
       bad kind                       infanaĉo = brat,
                                      virinaĉo = hag,
                                      ĉevalaĉo = sorry nag,
                                      veteraĉo = filthy weather,
                                      aĉulo = creep, thug,
                                      aĉaĵo = abomination

-ad-   frequent, repetitive           naĝado = swimming,
       or habitual action,            pafado = shooting,
       prolonged action,              kuirado = cooking,
       continuation of action         agadi = to act,
                                      agado = action, activity,
                                      movado = movement,
                                      parolado = a speach,
                                      kuradi = to keep on running

-aĵ-  thing (concrete idea),         segaĵo = sawdust,
       a concrete manifestation       bovaĵo = beef,
       of an abstraction,             ŝafaĵo = mutton,
       the external manifestation     kokinaĵo, kokidaĵo = chicken,
       of an activity,                fluaĵo = liquid,
       a characteristic piece of      pakaĵo = package, thing packed,
       behaviour,                     sendaĵo = shipment, thing sent,
       the flesh of an animal,        infanaĵo = a childish act,
       product, dish                  ovaĵo = scrambled eggs,
                                      ĝentilaĵo = polite, courteous act,
                                      verdaĵo = greenery, something green,
                                      manĝaĵo = food,
                                      fragaĵo = strawberry jam,
                                      sekaĵoj = dry goods,
                                      dolcxaĵoj = sweets, candies,
                                      aĵo = a thing, object,
                                      Esperantaĵoj = publications or other
                                      collectibles related to Esperanto

-an-   member (of a group),           ano = member,
       inhabitant (of a place         klubano = club member,
       or country), partisan,         kursano = a course participant,
       participant, adherent          kongresano = congressman, delegate,
                                      vilaĝano = villager,
                                      urbanoj = townspeople,
                                      nederlandano = dutchman,
                                      londonano = londoner,
                                      amerikanoj = americans,
                                      kristano = christian

-ar-   collective, group, set,        arbaro = forest, woods,
       a collection of like things    anaro = members' body,
                                      vortaro = dictionary,
                                      libraro = library,
                                      aŭdantaro = audience,
                                      homaro = mankind,
                                      aro = collection, set

-ĉj-  pet-name (masculine)           pacĉo = daddy,
       [truncation of root optional]  Joĉjo = Johnny, Joe,
                                      Tomĉjo = Tom, Tommy

-ebl-  -able, -ible, possibility      legebla = legible,
                                      portebla = portable,
                                      videbla = visible,
                                      manĝebla = edible,
                                      kredebla = credible, believable,
                                      kredeble = possibly, probably,
                                      eble = perhaps,
                                      ebla = possible,
                                      ebleco = possibility

-ec-   quality, abstract idea,        blankeco = whiteness,
       -ness, -ship                   rapideco = speed,
                                      silkeca = silky,
                                      amikeco = friendship,
                                      klareco = clearness,
                                      profesoreco = professorship,
                                      moleco = softness,
                                      malmoleco = hardness,
                                      eco = quality

-eg-   augmentative, great size,      bonega = excellent,
       intense degree                 petegi = to beseech, to implore,
                                      domego = mansion,
                                      ridegi = to guffaw,
                                      varmega = hot,
                                      ega = great,
                                      ege = very

-ej-   place alloted to               lernejo = school,
       or characterized by, space     kuirejo = kitchen,
                                      loĝejo = apartment,
                                      vendejo = store,
                                      herbejo = meadow,
                                      hundejo = dog kennel,
                                      preĝejo = temple, church,
                                      ejo = place

-em-   propensity, disposition,       babilema = loquacious,
       tendency                       parolema = talkative,
                                      komprenema = understanding,
                                      laborema = hard working, industrious,
                                      ŝparema = thrifty,
                                      mortema = mortal,
                                      ludema = playful,
                                      kredema = credulous,
                                      kolerema = irascible,
                                      suspektema = open to suspicion,
                                      samseksema = homosexual,
                                      malsamseksema = heterosexual,
                                      ambaŭseksema = bisexusual,
                                      ema = inclined, disposed, prone, apt,
                                      malema = unwilling, reluctant,
                                      eme = willingly, readily,
                                      emo = tendency, inclination, disposition

-end-  to be -ed, which-must-be-done, pagenda = payable, to be payed, due,
       necessity of action            detruenda = to be destroyed,
                                      solvenda = must be solved,
                                      farenda = to be done, must be done

-er-   item, unit, fragment,          panero = crumb,
       small particle of a whole,     ĉenero = link,
       element                        pluvero = raindrop,
                                      monero = coin,
                                      pulvero = dust particle,
                                      fajrero = spark,
                                      sablero = grain of sand,
                                      diserigi = to split up, grind down,
                                      ero = element, particle, part

-estr- leader, ruler, head, chief     estro = chief,
                                      estri = to govern, direct, lead,
                                      ŝtatestro = head of state,
                                      guberniestro = state governor,
                                      staciestro = station master,
                                      urbestro = mayor,
                                      regnestro = ruler,
                                      lernejestro = head-master, principal,
                                                    school director,
                                      ŝipestro = capitain, ship's master

-et-   diminutive                     dormeti = to doze, to slumber,
                                      libreto = booklet,
                                      lageto = pond,
                                      dometo = cottage,
                                      varmeta = luke-warm,
                                      rideti = to smile,
                                      eta = small, minimal

-id-   offspring, the descendant of,  ido = child, infant, descendant, scion,
       the young of an animal         idoj = progeny,
                                      izraelido = israelite,
                                      reĝido = prince,
                                      hundido = puppy,
                                      katido = kitten,
                                      ĉevalido = colt,
                                      bovido = calf,
                                      kokido = chick

-ig-   to make, to render,            purigi = to clean, to purify,
       to cause, to bring about       ebligi = to make possible,
                                      mortigi = to kill,
                                      plenigi = to fill,
                                      blankigi = to whiten,
                                      ruinigi = to ruin,
                                      bruligi = to burn something (tr),
                                      timigi = to frighten,
                                      plibonigi = to improve something (tr),
                                      lumigi = to put on the light,
                                      bindigi = to have bound,
                                      starigi = to stand (tr),
                                      sciigi = to let know, to inform,
                                      igi = to make someone or to cause
                                           something to be

-iĝ-  causative, to become, get,     edziĝi = to get married
       action of becoming                         (to become a husband),
                                      edziniĝi = to get married
                                                  (to become a wife),
                                      naskiĝi = to be born,
                                      ruĝiĝi = to blush,
                                      blankiĝi = to grow white, whiten,
                                      pliboniĝi = to improve (intr),
                                      sidiĝi = to sit down, to become seated,
                                      moviĝi = to move of itself,
                                      enlitiĝi = to get into bed,
                                      ruliĝi = to roll (intr),
                                      sciiĝi = to get to know, become aware,
                                      iĝi = to become by self

-il-   instrument, means,             ilo = tool,
       tool, implement                hakilo = axe,
                                      ŝlosilo = key,
                                      kudrilo = needle,
                                      tranĉilo = knife,
                                      razilo = razor,
                                      flugilo = wing,
                                      montrilo = pointer, arrow

-in-   female, feminine               virino = woman,
                                      patrino = mother,
                                      reĝino = queen,
                                      fratino = sister,
                                      onklino = aunt,
                                      ĉevalino = mare,
                                      kokino = hen,
                                      ino = female

-ind-  worthiness,                    laŭdinda = praiseworthy,
       worthy to be -ed,              admirinda = worthy of admiration,
       worth -ing                     aminda = loveable, worthy of love,
                                      memorinda = memorable,
                                      vidinda = worth seeing,
                                      vizitinda = worth a trip,
                                      inda = worthy

-ing-  holder, socket,                glavingo = scabbard,
       sheath (for one object)        plumingo = penholder,
                                      kandelingo = candlestick

-ist-  person habitually occupied     instruisto = teacher,
       or concerned with something,   artisto = artist,
       professional or enthusiastic   pentristo = painter,
       amateur, adherent, partisan    policisto = policeman,
                                      maŝinisto = machinist,
                                      biciklisto = cyclist,
                                      maristo = sailor,
                                      ŝuisto = shoemaker,
                                      drogisto = druggist,
                                      marksisto = marxist,
                                      Esperantisto = Esperantist

-nj-   pet-name (feminine)            panjo = mommy,
       [truncation of root optional]  Manjo = Mary,
                                      Nenjo = Nellie

-obl-  multiple                       unuobla = single,
                                      duobla = double, twofold,
                                      trioble = triply, three times,
                                      kvaroble = fourfold, quadruply,
                                      dekduoble = twelve times,
                                      dudekoble = twenty times,
                                      centoble = a hundredfold,
                                      multobligi, obligi = to multiply

-on-   fraction                       duono = half,
                                      duonigi = to halve,
                                      sesono = sixth,
                                      centono = a hundredth part

-op-   collective                     unuope = one by one, singly,
                                      duope = two by two, in twos,
                                      kvaropo = quartet,
                                      kvarope = four abreast, by fours,
                                      centope = by hundreds, a hundred at
                                                                   a time

-uj-   (1) container, receptacle      monujo = purse,
                                      inkujo = inkstand,
                                      ujo = generic container

       (2) land, country              Anglujo = England,
                                      Esperantujo = Esperanto-land
                                      (everywhere where E-o is spoken),

       (3) tree or bush               pomujo = apple tree,
           bearing fruit              pirujo = pear-tree,
                                      plumujo = plum-tree,
                                      vinberujo = vine
[note that (2) and (3) usages of -uj- are becoming archaic/outdated]

-ul-   person (possesing a certain    junulo = youth, young man,
       quality), characterised by     belulino = beauty,
                                      bravulo = brave man,
                                      blindulo = blind person,
                                      surdulo = deaf person,
                                      mutulo = mute person,
                                      riĉulo = rich man,
                                      drinkulo = drunkard,
                                      saĝulo = wise man, sage,
                                      samseksemulo = homosexual, gay,
                                      kunulo = companion,
                                      fremdulo = stranger,
                                      ulo = person, individual

-um-   indefinite relation            malvarmumi = to catch cold,
                                      plenumi = to fulfil,
                                      tendumi = to camp,
                                      literumi = to spell,
                                      okulumi = to ogle,
                                      foliumi = to browse, to glance
                                                (through a book),
                                      kolumo = colar,
                                      manumo = wirst band,
                                      plandumo = sole (of shoe),
                                      ventumi = to fan,
                                      ventumilo = a fan,
                                      aerumi = to ventilate,
                                      komunumo = community,
                                      krucumi = to crucify,
                                      amikumi = to be friends,
                                      Esperantumi = to use Esperanto
                                                    (and to enjoy it)

II b. Unofficial Suffixes:

-i-    country                        Francio = France,
                                      Britio = Great Britain,
                                      Bulgario, Meksikio

-ism-  -ism, theory, system,          platonismo = platonism,
       characteristic behaviour,      protektismo = protectionism,
       pattern                        alkoholismo = alcoholism,
                                      magnetismo = magnetism,
                                      fetiĉismo = fetishism,
                                      anglismo = anglicism

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