E S P E R A N T O   C O U R S E

                               Leciono Ok

We need to consider actions (verbs) in more detail.  We have already dealt
with the simple verbs ending in "is", "as", and "os".  Now we take a look
at compound (two-part) verbs, in which the first part gives the general
time of the action and the second part gives the state of the action.

Before looking at the Esperanto use of compound verbs, let's look at the
use of compound verbs in English.

__________________________ PRACTICE ____________________________

                         Ekzercoj, Leciono Ok (parto unu)

In the following diagram, under 'General Time', write either yesterday,
now, tomorrow.  Under 'State of Action', write completed, on-going, or not

                         General Time        State of Action

He is reading

He was reading

He will have eaten

He is about to go

He will be reading

He has eaten

He was about to write

He had eaten

He will be about to go


Notice that the first part of the two-part verb, which we call the
auxiliary or helping verb, is 'to be' except when the action has been
completed; in that case, English uses the auxiliary verb 'to have'.

In Esperanto, the auxiliary verb is always esti (to be).

(yesterday)         Li estis     \/     manĝinta      (completed)
(now)               Li estas     --     leganta        (proceeding)
(tomorrow)          Li estos     /\     skribonta      (not yet)

The idea is simple, but the explanation is somewhat confusing and
difficult; hang in there!  Let's look now at a fuller demonstration of
Compound Verbs in Esperanto....

Compound Verb Tenses - Active  (inta, anta, onta)

Jeanne has regular habits.  Using simple verb tenses we say:

every day at 8:00   "She eats her breakfast."
                         "Ŝi manĝas sian matenmanĝon." (sia - his/her own)

every day at 8:05   "She reads her paper."
                         "Ŝi legas sian Ĵurnalon."

every day at 8:10   "She writes a letter."
                         "Ŝi skribas leteron."

But none of these actions is instantaneous, and we can show this better by
using the compound verb tenses:

and say at 8:00     "She is eating her breakfast."
                         "Ŝi estas manĝanta sian matenmanĝon."

and say at 8:05     "She is reading her paper."
                         "Ŝi estas leganta sian ĵurnalon."

and say at 8:10     "She is writing a letter."
                         "Ŝi estas skribanta leteron."

Suppose we are spying on her, and we report by phone at 8:05; then at 8:05
we would say:
                                        present   state of
                                         time      action

"She has eaten her breakfast."          "Ŝi estas manĝinta sian

"She is reading her paper."             "Ŝi estas leganta sian ĵurnalon."

"She is about to write a letter."       "Ŝi estas skribonta leteron."

Later during the day, we may have to confirm in writing what we previously
reported.  Then we would say that by 8:05:

"She had eaten her breakfast"           "Ŝi estis manĝinta sian

"She was reading her paper."            "Ŝi estis leganta sian ĵurnalon."

"She was about to write a letter."      "Ŝi estis skribonta leteron."

Also, we must tell the next day's spy what to expect.  We tell her that if
she gets there by 8:05, she will find that:

"She will have eaten her breakfast."    "Ŝi estos man#285inta sian

"She will be reading her paper."        "Ŝi estos leganta sian ĵurnalon."

"She will be about to write a letter."  "Ŝi estos skribonta leteron."

Compound Verb Tenses - Active Participles

(action is preformed by the subject of the sentence)

inta (action recently completed).
anta (action still on-going)
onta (action soon to begin)

Please note:  because participles are actually adjectives, [Cf. kuranta
knabo, a running boy] they must agree in number with the subject.  For

Ili estas manĝintaj                    They have eaten
Ni estis irontaj                        We were about to go
Vi estos skribantaj                     You will be writing

__________________________ PRACTICE ____________________________

                         Ekzercoj, Leciono Ok (parto du)

(translate into Esperanto, using compound verbs):

1.   Father is reading a book [libro].

2.   Mother is making a cake.

3.   The boys are about to write.

4.   The boy is about to drink tea.

5.   Who has washed the small boy?

6.   Father was reading a book.

7.   Who has eaten my cake?

8.   Mother was making a beautiful cake.

9.   The boy was about to write.

10.  They were going to write.

11.  My brother has washed [lavi] my car [aŭto].

12.  My sister had eaten my cake.

13.  Father will be reading a book.

14.  I will be selling tea and coffee.

15.  The boy will be about to write a letter.

16.  He will have eaten.

17.  He is shooting [pafi].

18.  He is going to score [trafi].

19.  He has scored.

20.  He had scored.

Perk up!  The worst is over!
Just some odd bits left over for the next two lessons.

On to Lesson 9!

Or go back to the index for other lessons.