E S P E R A N T O   C O U R S E

                                Lesson Five

Saluton!  (Hello!  Greetings!)

Bonan tagon!             Good day!
Bonan matenon!           Good morning!
Bonan vesperon!          Good evening!
Bonan nokton!            Good night!

Kiel vi fartas?          How are you?  (farti = to fare, be)
Bone, dankon.  Kaj vi?   Fine, thanks.  And you?
Sufiĉe bone.             So-so.  (literally, sufficiently well)
Ne tre bone.             Not so good.
Bonan apetiton!          Enjoy your food!  (Bon appetit!)
Je via sano!             To your health!
Same al vi, dankon.      Same to you, thanks.
Ĝis la revido.           See you later.  (literally, until the re-seeing)
Adiaŭ.                   Goodbye.  (Adieu).

Conversation:  If two people can talk about themselves for 5 minutes each,
then they can easily have at least a 10 minute conversation.

By the end of this 10 lesson course, you should have written down all your
vital statistics and personal details (true or false!) and you should know
them by heart.

After that, you should be able to give a brief talk about yourself in
Esperanto, even if you have to prompt yourself with a 'cheat-sheet' in

Let's take a look at an example about John Brown:

     Mia nomo estas Johano Bruno.  Mi loĝas en Usono.  Mi komencis lerni
Esperanton antaŭ kvar semajnoj.  Ĝi estas tre facila lingvo.  Mi loĝas
en domo kun mia edzino kaj niaj infanoj.  Ni havas unu filinon kaj du
     Mi havas korespondantojn en tri landoj.

There are 45 very useful words which are a part of a regular system of
correlated words (known technically, therefore, as "correlatives").  The
meaning of any correlative is the combined meaning of the root (beginning)
and the ending:  (simple, isn't it?)

  ki- [what]                  -o   thing
                              -a   kind of, sort of
  ti- [that]                  -e   place
                              -u   one, or person
   i- [some]                  -om  quantity (amount)
                              -am  time
 ĉi- [every]                 -al  reason, for...reason
                              -el  manner, in...way
neni- [no]                    -es  one's; person's


tio = that thing     iam = sometime     nenie = no where

Typical correlatives and their equally typical English equivalents:

     English                                 Esperanto

     how?         (in) what manner           kiel
     when?        (at) what time             kiam
     where?       (at, in) what place        kie
     why?         (for) what reason          kial
     how much?    (in) what amount           kiom
     always       (at) every time            ĉiam
     thus         (in) that way, manner      tiel
     nobody       no one, no person          neniu
     somewhere    (at) some place            ie

Pay attention to the accent:  ne-NI-e, KI-u, TI-al, etc.

Note that in English prepositions may be included in the meaning of the
Esperanto correlative.

The endings "a" and "u" take the grammar coding "-n" and/or "-j" where
appropriate.  The ending "o" takes the grammar coding "-n" where

If a question contains a question word such as "kio" or "kie", one does
not use the yes/no question word "ĉu":

    What is that?      = Kio estas tio?
    Where is that?     = Kie estas tio?

Compare with:

    Are you drinking?  = Ĉu vi trinkas?

__________________________ PRACTICE ____________________________

                         Ekzercoj, Leciono Kvin

(Translate into Esperanto)

1.   What (thing) is that (thing)?

2.   Where is my cup?

3.   Which is my book?  *

4.   Who ate my cake?  *

5.   When will you eat?

6.   Everything is wet.

7.   I forgot everything.

8.   My pen is somewhere.

9.   Then I drank my tea.

10.  How much (do) you have?  [do is not to be translated]

11.  How (does) she run?

12.  Why are you smoking?  [use simple verb form]

13.  Nobody's coffee has milk.

14.  How (did) you make it?

15.  I am not that-kind-of girl.

16.  We have all-kinds-of cups.

17.  What kind of sandwich do you have?

18.  What did you ask for?

19.  Is everyone dry?

20.  Who is that?

* Note the difference between kio and kiu.

kio = what thing; e.g., plumo, taso, limonado, etc.
kiu = which thing; e.g., la nigra plumo, la unua domo, etc.
kiu also means who.  Kiu vi estas?

On to Lesson 6!

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