E S P E R A N T O   C O U R S E

                               Leciono Dek

Regular word building:  Applicable to all animal families:

ox       cow      calf     herd     bovo     bovino   bovido   bovaro
sheep    ewe      lamb     flock    ŝafo    ŝafino  ŝafido  ŝafaro
dog      bitch    puppy    pack     hundo    hundino  hundido  hundaro
horse    mare     foal     herd     ĉevalo  ...      ...      ...
rabbit   rabbit   --       --       kuniklo  ...      ...      ...

Got the idea?  In Esperanto it's easy, but in English it's hard!

A few more word building suffixes and prefixes:

ge-               gepatroj       gesinjoroj     geknaboj
of both           parents        ladies and     boys and girls
sexes                            gentlemen

-an               klubano        vilaĝano      nov-jorkano
member of         club member    villager       New Yorker

-eg               pluvego        ridego         bonega
enormous          downpour       hearty laugh   excellent

-ej               klubejo        trinkejo       necesejo
place for         clubhouse      pub            restroom (WC)

-et               libreto        manĝeto       monteto
tiny              booklet        snack          hill

-ul               junulo         blindulo       belulino
person            youth          blind person   a beauty

bo-               bofrato        bopatrino
in-law            brother-in-law mother-in-law

Logic dictates when to use prefixes and suffixes, but there are no precise
rules.  So use them when they make sense.  Can anything be easier?

Kio estas la puno por bigamio?  Du bopatrinoj!

Summary of verb forms:  (What makes the following so great is that it can
be used with all verbs; no exceptions!)

Simple verb forms (use with any noun or pronoun subject).

     dormi     [infinitive]             to sleep
     dormis    [past time]              (yesterday)
     dormas    [present time]           (now)
     dormos    [future time]            (tomorrow)

     dormus    [conditional]

               Se mi estus riĉa, mi estus kontenta.  If I were rich, I
               would be content.  (describes situation that aren't true.)

     dormu!    [imperative]             A command!

               Aŭ silentu, aŭ foriru.  Either be quiet or go away.

Common verb affixes:

                                   re:  repeat of action; again
re-                 -iĝ-          ek:  sudden start or short duration
  [verb root] -ad-                 ad:  continual action
ek-                 -ig-           iĝ: to become
                                   ig:  to make (something happen)

Compound verbs - active  (Action by the subject of sentence)

     Ŝi estis                manĝinta sian matenmanĝon.
     Ŝi estas                leganta sian ĵurnalon.
     Ŝi estos                skribonta leteron.

Note:  participles can have a plural form:

     Mi estas manĝinta.      Ni estas manĝintaj.

And participles can be used as adjectives:

     La dormanta knabo:       The sleeping boy.

Compound verbs - passive  (Action on the subject of sentence)


     active:        Li estas leganta la ĵurnalon.
                    He is reading the newspaper.

     passive:       La ĵurnalo estas legata de li.
                    The paper is being-read by him.

Compare with lesson 8:
     La matenmanĝo      estis     \/   manĝita de ŝi.
     La ĵurnalo         estas     --   legata de ŝi.
     La letero           estos     /\   skribota de ŝi.

ita, been -ed; ata, being -ed; ota, about to be -ed.

Our apologies for packing all that stuff in such a small mail - but
just try to cover the same information about any other language in
anything smaller than a textbook.

The compound verbs are used a lot less in Esperanto than in English.
Use of the simple form is usually good enough.  Instead of "Li estis
manĝinta", we say "Li manĝis."

Participles can be used as nouns.

                    aminto    someone who   was   loving
     active:        amanto    someone who   is    loving
                    amonto    someone who will-be loving

                    amito     someone who   was   loved
     passive:       amato     someone who   is    loved
                    amoto     someone who will-be loved

Noun participles can have feminine [amantino] and plural [amatoj] forms.
They can be formed from any verb [parolanto, dormintoj, falontino (the girl
who is about to fall)].

Note the difference between -anto and -isto:

     instruanto:    one who teaches (not professionally)
     instruisto:    a teacher (professional)

A little more about the correlatives in lesson 5:

     tio = that thing              ĉi tio   = this thing
     tiu = that (one, person)      ĉi tiu   = this one, person
     tie = there, that place       ĉi tie   = this place, here

kiom = how much, how many; kiom da = how many (of) something

     Kiom da amikoj vi havas?  How many friends do you have?  Kiom ĝi
     kostas?  How much does it cost?

kies = whose             Kies plumo ĝi estas?
                         Whose pen is it?

answer:   Ĝi estas la plumo de Johano.
          (No shorter way of saying "John's pen")

Sunday    Monday    Tuesday   Wednesday Thursday  Friday    Saturday
dimanĉo  lundo     mardo     merkredo  ĵaŭdo   vendredo  sabato

January   February  March     April     May       June      July
januaro   februaro  marto     aprilo    majo      junio     julio

August    September October   November  December
aŭgusto  septembro oktobro   novembro  decembro

                             La Lingvo Por Ni
                  (Tune:  My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean)

     Sur montoj kaj step' indianoj,
     Ĉasadas kun ruĝ-famili',
     Kaj se vi postulas parolon,
     el kanjon' eliras la kri':

#    ES-PER-AN-TO estas la lingvo por ni, por ni!
     ES PER AN TO estas la lingvo por ni!

     En densa afrika ĝangalo, la bonaj amikoj de ni
     Jam solvis la lingvan problemon, Per tamtam' eliras la kri':
     Ĉe norda poluso eskimoj, loĝadas en neĝo, glaci';
     Se ili bezonas parolon, aŭdiĝas la tutsama kri';
     Sur tuta la vasta terglobo, en urboj el ĉiu naci'
     Troviĝas sam-ide-an-aro, de buboj elsonas la kri':
     Indianoj, nigruloj, eskimoj; urbanoj kaj buboj kaj mi
     Jam uzas la Zamenhof-lingvon, Do, vivu, prosperu la kri':

(Note:  An apostrophe denotes an "o" which as been left out for poetic or
musical reasons, do not do this in prose.)

HEY, IT'S ME, NOAM, YOUR KOREKTANTO!  I want to add something here.  The
replacement of the final "o" in a noun without the -j or -n endings by
an apostrophe, or of the "a" in "la" by an apostrophe when there's a
vowel either to before or after the "la" (lest it be unpronouncable) is
allowed, though used almost exclusively in poetry.  This is called
elision (elizio).  Look at Twinkle Twinkle Little Star in Esperanto:

	Brilu, brilu eta stel',
	Diamanto de l' ^ciel'.
	Tiel alta super Ter',
	Kio estas vi, en ver'?
	Brilu, brilu eta stel',
	Diamanto de l' ^ciel'.

Stelo = star, diamanto = diamond, ^cielo = sky, tero = earth/land/ground.
Sorry to take your time.  Back to the lesson...

With this lesson you will find the final set of exercises.  Complete the
50 sentences and send them back to your tutor. After correction, he will
send them back to you, and by separate mail you will receive an atestilo
(Certificate of Completion).

We would be very happy to receive from you any comments you may have about
the course and a note about your plans for Esperanto - traveling, reading,
corresponding, etc. Send them to the central address (the one in the
monthly posting).

There are many good books for beginning reading.  Write to the book service
of your national Esperanto association. They will be glad to send you a
book list and suggest suitable reading material. You can also try the book
service of the Universala Esperanto-Asocio, which claims to have the biggest
Esperanto-bookstore. For addresses, see lesson 1. Note that in Canada, the
address is:  Esperanto-Libroservo, 6358-A, rue de Bordeaux, Montreal,
Quebec, H2G 2R8, +1 514 272 0151.

We strongly recommend that you join your local Esperanto club or society
and participate in the activities.  Or if there isn't a club in your
region, start one up! For those who live in the USA: ELNA provides a list
of local groups, if you send them a self-addressed stamped envelope.

Vi jam finis vian unuan kurson de Esperanto.
Ni deziras por vi plej bonan sukceson!

Ĝis la revido!
__________________________ PRACTICE ____________________________

                         Ekzercoj, Leciono Dek

Translate into Esperanto.  [Close as possible with comments in bracket to
clarify the English.  Multiple translations are possible.  Think in
Esperanto; trying to translate word-for-word may not help!]

1.   The boy.

2.   A good boy.

3.   And a girl.

4.   The girl is bad.

5.   She has a beer.

6.   Real men drink beer.  [real = vera]

7.   Good girls don't smoke.

8.   But they quickly learn.

9.   The pupils are young.  [pupil = "one who is learning"]

10.  They have a new school.

11.  The teacher is old.

12.  What's that?

13.  Why do you keep on talking?

14.  Start working quietly.

15.  Whose book is that?

16.  How did you do so much?

17.  Do everything again.

18.  We went to the club at Houston.

19.  We will go in the minibus from Calgary.

20.  With beer under the seats.

21.  For drinking while we travel.  [make "drinking" an extended activity]

22.  On the freeway as far as the sea.

23.  We all run onto the beach.

24.  And someone swims in the sea.

25.  Would you like to go?

26.  He caught the ball.

27.  Shoot!  You'll score something.

28.  He has caught the ball.

29.  He is shooting.

30.  He is going to score.

31.  He had gone.

32.  The goal has been scored.

33.  The game was going to be won.

34.  Do you know a blonde?  [a female blonde]

35.  Who knows how to cook?

36.  I must meet her.

37.  I'd love such a wife.

38.  Sharpen my knife.

39.  I like my food.

40.  My parents are shopping.

41.  I want a tiny dog.  ["tiny dog" is one word]

42.  If I had a puppy...

43.  It would become bigger.

44.  I can imagine it there.

45.  There it is, with a huge bone.

46.  Why not go to Paris?

47.  Our club members went there.

48.  Drink some of their wine.

49.  We have sweet wines here.

50.  What time is it?

ball           pilko
beach          plaĝo
blonde         blonda
Calgary        Kalgario
freeway        ŝoseo
gain (win)     gajno
game           ludo
goal           golo
Paris          Parizo
quiet          silenta
sea            maro
seat           seĝo
sweet          dolĉa
to imagine     imagi
to eat         manĝi
to cut         tranĉi
to score       trafi
to swim        naĝi
to shoot       pafi


Go back to the index for other lessons.