__________________________________________________________________________ E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E __________________________________________________________________________ Lesson Three It may seem like we packed a lot into Lesson Two, but here are the main things you have learned so far: subject thing(s) action object thing(s) -o -as -on -is -oj -os -ojn Mia patrino --------- lavas --------- mian fraton. Niaj fratinoj --------- vidis ------- viajn instruistinojn. You don't have to write sentences in the above word order, but it is the most common form, and for English-speakers it's easier to learn just this pattern at first. Once you realize that "grammar coding" tells you what part each word plays in a sentence (its function), you could, for poetry or emphasis, arrange the coded words in any other order without changing the original meaning. Let's take a look at a couple of examples of different word order and answer a couple of questions (remember to pay attention to the endings of the words). __________________________ PRACTICE ____________________________ Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto unu) Mian fraton lavis mia patrino. 1. Who was washed? Who did the washing? Instruistinojn viajn fratinoj niaj vidis. 2. Who did the seeing? Who was seen? __________________________________________________________________________ In this 10-lesson course we are going to stick to the subject-verb-object word order, but in well-written Esperanto texts other word orders are frequently used for reasons of emphasis and text coherence. If you use Esperanto you will rapidly acquire a feeling for word order. The best word order to use depends mainly on the context, so it is difficult to give precise "rules". Let's go on now, right to this lesson's word list below. Vocabulary, lesson three Nouns Verbs (infinitives) Adjectives horo (hour) atendi (to wait for) blanka (white) jaro (year) fumi (to smoke) blua (blue) mateno (morning) kuri (to run) bruna (brown) minuto (minute) sati (to be satisfied) flava (yellow) nokto (night) promeni (to stroll) griza (gray) semajno (week) respondi (to answer) nigra (black) tago (day) soifi (to be thirsty) ruĝa (red) vespero (evening) vivi (to live) verda (green) demandi (to inquire, ask a question) Note the difference between demandi (related to questions) and peti (related to requests or "petitions"). Both can be translated as "ask" in English. Remember, j is pronounced like y, so jaro = YAH-row. Adverbs: Adverbs are like adjectives, but instead of describing nouns, adverbs describe verbs and adjectives, usually telling how, when, or where. (Adverbs in English usually end in -ly). In Esperanto, adverbs derived from other words always end in -e. We can use the basic idea of a word in different ways by simply changing the grammar-coded ending: sano = health ŝi havas bonan sanon sana = healthy ŝi estas sana sani = to be healthy ŝi sanas sane = healthily ŝi sane vivas Adverbs usually precede the word they describe. Note: The pronunciation of adverbs, ending in "-e", needs some attention. In general, every vowel makes up one syllable (sound unit) of an Esperanto word. Therefore, we must read the two-part sound of "sane" as "SAH-neh" and not as the one-part sound of the English word "sane". Lesson four will concentrate more on the correct sounds of Esperanto. Right now, let's just say that Esperanto "e" should be pronounced as the "e" in "met". Due to different pronunciations throughout the English- speaking world, it is impossible to give exact Esperanto pronunciation in writing. subject thing verb adverb object thing -a -o -as -e -an -on -aj -oj -is -ajn -ojn -os __________________________ PRACTICE ____________________________ Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto du) 3. My brother will-stroll in-the-morning ("morningly"). 4. His friend replied warmly. 5. The brown pen writes well ("goodly"). 6. The grey teacher runs badly. 7. Our father smokes in-the-evening ("eveningly"). 8. He loves her. 9. He loves her sister. 10. She loves him. __________________________________________________________________________ Numbers (cardinal numbers are not grammar-coded: no endings) nulo 0 dek 10 tridek 30 unu 1 dek unu 11 tridek unu 31 du 2 dek du 12 tridek du 32 tri 3 dek tri 13 ... kvar 4 dek kvar 14 kvardek 40 kvin 5 ... kvindek 50 ses 6 and so on to sesdek 60 sep 7 dudek 20 cent 100 ok 8 dudek unu 21 mil 1 000 naŭ 9 ... miliono 1 000 000 Numbers (ordinal numbers have the ending "-a", like adjectives, and take the plural "-j" and object "-n", like adjectives) unua first dudeka twentieth dua second sepdek unua seventy-first tria third centa hundredth unue firstly trie thirdly due secondly kvare fourthly Note: the "aŭ" is pronounced as "ow" in cow. Note: the adverb form of the numbers is sometimes translated as: unue = in the first place; trie = in the third place, etc. __________________________ PRACTICE ____________________________ Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto tri) 11. The first man loves the second woman. 12. The second woman hates the first man. 13. Two boys firstly asked for three cakes. 14. In-the-second-place they asked for lemonade. 15. The shop makes bad brown bread. 16. The shop makes brown bread badly. __________________________________________________________________________ Intransitive verbs do not show action from a subject to an object; instead, intransitive verbs are used to show the state of the subject. Adjectives after intransitive verbs describe the subject. Li estas sana. Ŝi estas instruisto (or: instruistino). He is healthy. She is a teacher. The object "-n" is not used after such verbs. __________________________ PRACTICE ____________________________ Ekzercoj, Leciono Tri (parto kvar) 17. Sixty minutes are one hour. 18. Twenty-four hours are one day (and night). 19. Seven days are one week. 20. The third boy is my second son. __________________________________________________________________________ On to Lesson 4! Or go back to the index for other lessons.